The HIPAA Privacy Rule requires that covered entities develop and apply policies and procedures for appropriate administrative, technical, and physical safeguards to protect the privacy of protected health information (PHI), including through final disposition. See 45 CFR 164.530(c). In addition, the HIPAA Security Rule requires that covered entities implement policies and procedures to address the final disposition of electronic PHI and/or the hardware or electronic media on which it is stored. See 45 CFR 164.310(d)(2)(i). The Rules are flexible and thus, do not specify particular types of disposal methods; however, covered entities must ensure that the disposal method reasonably protects against impermissible uses and disclosures of PHI and protects against reasonably anticipated threats or hazards to the security of electronic PHI. See 45 CFR 164.530(c)(2) and 164.306(a). Whatever the disposal method, a covered entity must ensure that appropriate workforce members, either working on the premises or off-site, receive training on and follow the disposal policies and procedures of the covered entity. See 45 CFR 164.530(b) and (i), as well as 164.306(a)(4) and 164.308(a)(5) with regard to electronic PHI. These policies and procedures could require, for example, that employees or other workforce members who use PHI off-site, including electronic PHI, return all PHI to the covered entity for appropriate disposal. Or, for example, if appropriate under the circumstances, a covered entity could give off-site workforce members the option of either properly shredding PHI in paper records themselves or returning the PHI to the covered entity for disposal. In cases where workforce members fail to comply with the covered entity’s disposal policies and procedures, the covered entity must apply appropriate sanctions. See 45 CFR 164.530(e).